USM addresses the interoperability of service ecosystems by specifying the systematic routines for managing service delivery. Service delivery is an interaction between the customer and the service provider. These interactions can occur both within organizations (internal service delivery) and between organizations.

Figure 4.2 in the USM Repository emphasizes that the service is a product of that service provider, delivered by that service provider upon demand of the customer. After all, the service is a supported facility, and both the facility and the support are produced by the service provider and used by the customer.

The details of the USM process model (Fig. 5.7 from the Repository) and the USM workflows (Figs. 5.9 through 5.15) can then be plotted as the standard components for each service provider in that Customer-Provider Interaction Model, see the figure below.

Figure 4.2 from the USM Repository: the USM Customer-Provider Interaction Model, with the standard USM Process Model and the USM Workflows.

The USM Customer-Provider Interaction Model now acts as the link in supply chains and networks of collaborating service providers, both in supply chains and networks within organizations and between organizations. Used in this way as the standard link, efficient supply chains and networks can be built, for example for data exchange in healthcare (see the USM guideline on DIZRA or the DIZRA source) or in government (see e.g. NORA, the Dutch API strategy, or read the free e-book "Government as a service provider"). See the figure below for an example of such a chain of USM links.

A supply chain built from USM links. Click for a larger image.

Various supply chains can produce supply networks. These networks can be supported the same way with the concept of the USM link.

Supply networks based on the concept of the USM link, illustrating the relationships in terms of the USM Process Model